What is Task Positive Network (TPN) : Mindfulness Explained

by | 11 Apr, 2024

A brain with highlighted areas representing the task positive network

The Task Positive Network (TPN) is a network of brain regions that are activated when we are engaged in cognitively demanding tasks. This network is crucial for our ability to focus, make decisions, and solve problems. In the context of mindfulness, understanding the TPN can provide valuable insights into how our brains function when we are fully present and engaged in the moment.

The concept of the TPN is rooted in neuroscience, but its implications extend to psychology, mindfulness practices, and even our everyday lives. By understanding the TPN, we can better understand how our brains work, and how we can use this knowledge to improve our mental well-being and performance.

Understanding the Task Positive Network (TPN)

The TPN is a network of brain regions that work together to help us focus on the task at hand. These regions include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the inferior parietal lobule, and the anterior cingulate cortex, among others. These areas are responsible for various cognitive functions, such as attention, working memory, and executive control.

When we are engaged in a task, these regions become more active, helping us to concentrate and ignore distractions. This is why the TPN is often associated with states of high focus and productivity. However, the TPN is not always active. When we are not engaged in a task, another network called the Default Mode Network (DMN) becomes more active.

The TPN and the Default Mode Network (DMN)


The DMN is a network of brain regions that are active when we are not focused on the outside world, but instead are engaged in introspective activities such as daydreaming, thinking about the past or future, or considering others’ perspectives. The DMN includes regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the angular gyrus.

Interestingly, the TPN and the DMN are often considered to be anti-correlated, meaning that when one is active, the other is less so. This is thought to reflect the different types of mental activities that these networks support. While the TPN is associated with focused, task-oriented thinking, the DMN is associated with more diffuse, self-referential thinking.

Switching Between the TPN and the DMN

Our brains are constantly switching between the TPN and the DMN, depending on what we are doing. For example, if you are reading a book, your TPN is likely to be active as you concentrate on the words and their meaning. But if you start to daydream about what you’ll have for dinner, your DMN will become more active.

This switching is a normal part of brain function, but it can become problematic if we spend too much time in one network or the other. For example, excessive activity in the DMN has been linked to conditions such as depression and anxiety, as it can lead to excessive rumination and worry. On the other hand, being constantly in the TPN can lead to stress and burnout, as we are always “on” and never give ourselves a chance to relax and reflect.

The TPN and Mindfulness

Mindfulness, the practice of paying attention to the present moment in a non-judgmental way, is thought to help balance the activity of the TPN and the DMN. By focusing our attention on the here and now, we engage the TPN, helping us to stay focused and present. At the same time, by accepting our thoughts and feelings without judgment, we can prevent excessive activity in the DMN, reducing rumination and worry.

Research has shown that mindfulness can actually change the way our brains work, increasing activity in the TPN and reducing activity in the DMN. This can lead to a range of benefits, from improved focus and productivity to reduced stress and improved mental well-being.

Practicing Mindfulness to Engage the TPN

There are many ways to practice mindfulness, but they all involve some form of focused attention. This could be focusing on your breath, on the sensations in your body, or on the sounds around you. Whatever the focus, the goal is to keep your attention on the present moment, engaging the TPN and helping you to stay present and focused.

It’s important to note that mindfulness is not about trying to stop your thoughts or empty your mind. Rather, it’s about noticing when your mind has wandered (likely into the DMN), and gently bringing it back to the present moment. This act of noticing and returning is what strengthens the TPN and helps to balance the activity of the two networks.

Benefits of Engaging the TPN Through Mindfulness

Engaging the TPN through mindfulness can have a range of benefits. For one, it can improve our focus and productivity, as we are better able to concentrate on the task at hand. This can be particularly beneficial in our work or studies, where focus and attention are often crucial for success.

But the benefits of mindfulness and the TPN extend beyond productivity. By helping to balance the activity of the TPN and the DMN, mindfulness can also reduce stress, improve our mood, and enhance our overall mental well-being. This can have profound effects on our lives, improving our relationships, our health, and our overall quality of life.


The Task Positive Network is a crucial part of our brain’s functioning, helping us to focus and engage with the world around us. By understanding the TPN, and how it interacts with the Default Mode Network, we can better understand our own minds and how to take care of them.

Mindfulness, with its focus on present-moment attention, is a powerful tool for engaging the TPN and balancing the activity of our brain networks.